The Virgin Birth of Jesus is mentioned in two Gospels.
“Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us” (Matt. 1:23).
“And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, 27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary” (Luke 1:26, 27).
But the references to the virgin birth do not end in the two Gospels. The doctrine of the Virgin Birth is taught in many passages of Scripture. It is taught in the book of Genesis.
“And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15).
Though He was true humanity, the Bible is careful to declare that Jesus was made of the seed of David (Rom. 1:3). Jesus was not made of the seed of man. Joseph is declared to be “the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ” (Matt. 1:16).
The prophet Isaiah wrote of the Virgin Birth of Jesus, the Messiah. “Therefore, the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel” (Isaiah 7:14).
One of the greatest proofs for the Virgin Birth is in the two genealogies of Jesus. One is found in Matthew’s Gospel, the other is in Luke’s Gospel. Technically, the genealogy of Luke’s Gospel is that of Mary. The genealogy of Matthew’s Gospel is that of Joseph. The genealogy of Mary is traced back to the Son of David called Nathan. The genealogy of Joseph is traced back to the Son of David called Solomon. The difference between the two, is the difference between being in the royal line, and being in the legal line.
Solomon constituted the royal line of David, for he, and his descendants, reigned successively as kings until the day God put a curse on Jehoiachin (Jeconiah, Coniah). Nathan constituted the legal line of David. Though Nathan was the legal older son of David, Solomon was appointed to reign as the royal king (1 Kings 1:32 – 39).
The years passed. Nathan had many descendants that culminated with Mary. Solomon had many descendants that was exhausted with Joseph.
By tracing the genealogy of Jesus through Joseph, the fact was established that Jesus was the royal heir to the throne of David. By tracing the genealogy of Jesus through Nathan, the fact was established that Jesus was the legal heir of King David.
The reason why emphasis is placed on Jesus coming through line of Nathan, is because Jesus would not have been considered a legitimate king by the Jews, and rightful royal heir to the throne of David if His case rested on Joseph. Why? Because of the Curse of Coniah.
The curse of Coniah is found in Jeremiah 22. “Thus, saith the Lord, write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling any more in Judah” (Jer. 22:30).
The Lord spoke, and prophecy was fulfilled. Not one of the seven sons of Coniah ever possessed the throne (1 Chron. 3:17, 18). A descendent of this king from the line of Solomon could not have been king of the Jews, because of the curse of God, and Joseph was a descendent.
What is being said, is that if the Romans had not occupied Israel, Joseph the obscure carpenter from Nazareth, could have stepped forward and said, “I am King of the Jews.” Then, his eldest son could have continued the royal bloodline and reigned. However, the curse of Coniah made that impossible.
How then could Jesus claim to be the legitimately born King of the Jews, as the Magi noted He was. “Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. 3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him” (Matt. 2:1-3)
The Divine solution was this.
Jesus would be made of the seed of David, born of Mary, and therefore a legal descendant of King David from Nathan. Jesus would then be adopted by Joseph, and therefore a royal heir to the throne of David through Solomon. The other children of Joseph would have an Elder Brother who, legally, by adoption, would forever remain the royal heir, and another promise of God made to David would be fulfilled. God had promised to David an eternal kingdom. “And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. 14 I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: 15 But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. 16 And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever” (2 Sam. 7:12-16). In Christ, the promises of God are fulfilled. “And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end” (Luke 1:33).